1. MEASUREMENTS, CONVERSIONS, AND MANIPULATIONS NAME : . SECTION : PARTNER(S): DATE:

2. Pre-Lab Query: What is the meaning of “measurement”? What are you finding out when you measure something?

3. Pre-Lab Query: How could you measure the dimensions of a sheet of notebook paper? Be specific

4. Some Practical Measurements

{5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} 5. Match each measurement with its most probable qualifier/description: 80 gallons 2. 250mg/dL 22inches 4. 1200 calories 5. 16 ounces 6. 9 teaspoons 7. 130/85 mmHg 8. 10 feet probably diabetic b. a nice steak c. sugar in a can of soda d. height of an NBA basketball rim e. a tub of water f. a slice of pineapple upside down cheesecake g. a big foot h. probably hypertensive

6. Procedure: Let’s explore some simple measurements and measuring devices. When you record any measurement be sure to include the units! If you are doing 80 on the beltway, are you in trouble? If it’s 80 kilometers per hour the answer is no; however, if it’s 80 miles per hour there could be flashing red lights!

7. Matter and energy have so many attributes that we cannot qualify or quantitate/measure them all. Daily we discover new attributes . For example, we can quantitate/measure a) height— 6 feet b) blood sugar— 4.8 mmol/L c) weight— 150 pounds d) blood pressure— 116/75 mmHg e) vision— 20ft/200ft Likewise, we can qualify those attributes. For example, a person—a type of matter– can be/have a) tall b) nondiabetic c) heavy/thin/normal weight depending on height. d) non-hypertensive e) poor vision/legally blind

8. What does it mean to make/take a measurement When you take a measurement you quantitate/determine how much of a property/characteristic/aspect/attribute of matter or energy is present. Some examples of measurable aspects of matter and energy: a person’s blood pressure the concentration of heat (temperature) in a person the height of a person the quantity of electricity a household uses in a month the volume of gasoline a car takes the speed of a car

9. What is the difference between qualifying and quantifying/quantitating matter or energy? Qualifying: Quantitating/quantifying:

10. What are the two parts of a measurement?

11. What is a unit? What information does a unit give us?

12. submit What is the smallest graduation/calibration mark on the upper ruler shown above? there are no graduations 1 decimeter 1dm 0.1dm 0.1m What is the smallest graduation/calibration mark on the lower ruler above? there are no graduations 1 decimeter 1dm 0.1dm 0.1m

13. In your own words define the term(s) “calibration marks/graduations”.

14. Perhaps you have a meter stick at home. If not, spend some time Googling to become familiar with what a meter is. Below are a series of units that are fractions of a meter and appear on the meter stick. You will notice that the sizes are indicated by means of a prefix in front of the base unit (meter). Complete the following table using these units. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Portion of a Meter decimal Scientific notation fraction percentage word mm cm dm

15. Contemplation question: What is meant by “a count is exact; a measurement is not exact.”

16. Count the number of worms in the picture below? Answer: There are exactly 6 worms.

17. How to properly record a measurement: In any visual measurement you are allowed all the digits you are certain about (that is, you can be sure of from the markings) plus one digit that is an estimate. The last digit you write in any measurement (visual or digital) is a reasonable guess; you must be certain of the next to last digit

18. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Ruler Calibration on stick Reading in the units on the stick Conversion to Meters 1 (upper) 1dm 2 (middle) 1cm 3 (lower) 1mm A measurement of .35 could not be made with the upper ruler. Why not? A measurement of .0325 could not be made with the lower ruler. Why not?

19. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler After reading the following comments determine whether or not you made your measurements correctly. If not, make the appropriate corrections to your technique. To make a measurement, the tip of the worm is placed at the zero of the ruler. The top ruler has no graduations. After the zero, the middle ruler has ten equally scaled graduations; the lower ruler has 100 equally scaled graduations. With the upper ruler, 0.3dm, 0.4dm, 0.5dm would be acceptable measurements—each is correct. With the middle ruler, acceptable measurements are 0.31dm, 0.32dm, 0.33dm With the lower ruler, acceptable measurements are 0.325dm, 0.326dm, 0.328dm, 0.329dm

20. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler Submit A measurement of .35 could not be made with the upper ruler. Why not? A measurement of .0325 could not be made with the lower ruler. Why not?

21. Details of measurements Precision has to do with refinement/detail in a measurement. The more detail a measurement gives, the more precise it is. Some measuring devices placed in order of decreasing precision are a meter stick with mm graduations > a meter stick with cm graduations >a meter stick with dm graduations > a meter stick with no graduations. A visual measurement is one you make using graduations as your guide. A digital measurement is a readout given by an instrument/machine.

22. Determine the diameters in mm of the pennies shown below. Convert them to centimeters, decimeters, and meters. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Diameter: mm cm dm m Penny A Penny B Penny C Penny D Penny E

23. Determine diameters in mm of the pennies shown below. Convert them to centimeters, decimeters, and meters. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Thickness: mm cm dm m Penny A Penny B Penny C Penny D Penny E

24. Using the data you collected above, calculate the average diameter, the average radius, and the average thickness (height) of a penny. Show your work. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} mm cm dm m average diameter average radius average thickness

25. Using the geometric formula for the volume of a cylinder ( π r 2 h), the average radius, and the average thickness (height), calculate the volume of a penny. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Show your calculations for the average volume of a penny, based on the average diameters and thicknesses of pennies A, B, C, D, and E. mm 3 cm 3 dm 3 m 3

26. Reading volume

27. How many decimal places? submit Look carefully at the markings on a 10mL graduated cylinder. Referring back to your experience with the rulers, how many decimal places will this measuring device provide a) if the bottom of the meniscus is directly on an integer line (such as 5, 6 or 7). b) if the bottom of the meniscus is directly on a non-integer line? c) if the bottom of the meniscus is between two lines. (Remember you are allowed one estimated place beyond what you are sure of from the markings.)

28. How many pennies? submit

29. How many pennies? submit

30. How many pennies? submit

{5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} 31. Data Table submit Mass (grams) Erlenmeyer flask Charcoal

32. Substances A, B, C, D, and E have the characteristics listed in the table below. The possible identities of A, B,C, D, and E are Zinc iron, aluminum, copper, and cork, densities (g/cm 3 which is the same as g//mL): 7.140, 7.86, 2.71, 8.96, and 0.24, respectively. Using the data given outline a method for identifying these substances, then identify them. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Diameter (cm) Height (cm) hardness magnetic color Identifying factor ? A 2.821 0.80 hard magnetic silver B 4.26 0.3500 compressible non brown C 1.875 1.810 hard non silver D 2.58 0.96 hard non silver E 1.7088 2.18 hard non gold

33. Identify the following rocks/minerals according to their densities: periodite (3.4g/cm 3 ), pumice (0.641g/cm 3 ), pyrite (5.02g/cm 3 ), shale (2.45g/cm 3 ), slate (2.74g/cm 3 ). Enter your data and results on the next slide

34. Identify the following rocks/minerals according to their densities: periodite (3.4g/cm 3 ), pumice (0.641g/cm 3 ), pyrite (5.02g/cm 3 ), shale (2.45g/cm 3 ), slate (2.74g/cm 3 ). Extract your data from the information given on the previous slide; enter it and your results (show all calculations) in the table below. submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} F G H I J Mass Final volume Initial volume density identity

35. Some Important terms The volumes of the rocks were measured by “ water displacement ”. Density is an intensive property , meaning it is a characteristic that does not depend on mass. Both volume and mass are extensive properties , because they depend on the amount of material.

36.

37. Match each mixture of the compound in the left column with water, to the correct test tube (1,2,or 3) from the previous slide {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Water soluble Density (g/mL) Test tube when mixed with water (1, 2, or 3) CCl 4 No 1.587 C 2 H 6 O Yes 0.789 C 6 H 14 No 0.659 water XXXX 1g/mL XXXX

38. Certain vs Uncertain portions of measurements The certain portion of a visual measurement is the portion you read without guesswork. The uncertain portion of a measurement is the portion you guess (it is the rightmost number in a digital measurement). Together, the certain and uncertain portions of a measurement are significant .

39. How to treat zeros in measurements 10) When evaluating a measurement, use the following rules to determine whether or not zeros are significant: Preceding zeros are not significant e.g., 00.000345 has only 3 significant figures: 345. The zeros are space fillers aka space holders . Sandwiched zeros are significant e.g., .345000678 has 9 significant figures. Trailing zeros that occupy decimal places are significant .345000 has six significant figures. Trailing zeros that are digits are significant only if they are followed by a decimal point e.g., 1,000m is a measurement with one significant figure (the zeros are space fillers ); whereas, 1,000.m is measurement with 4 significant figures. 11) When putting measurements into scientific notation only significant figures are used. Example: 450 = 4.5*10 2 ; whereas, 450. = 4.50*10 2 and 450.0 = 4.500*10 2

40. Performing operations with measurements: a. When rounding off numbers begin with the digit or decimal to the right of the digit you’re rounding to. If this digit (the one to the right) is 5 or greater round up, otherwise the number remains the same e.g., rounding 1.2345 to two decimal places: a) start with the 4 in the thousandths place. It is less than 5; therefore, the number rounds off to 1.23. The number 1.2367 would round off to 1.24. For multiple step calculations, it is best to complete all steps before rounding off. b. When adding or subtracting measurements, the answer (sum or difference) will only be as precise as the addend or subtrahend with the least precision i.e., the answer will have only as many decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. c. When multiplying or dividing measurements, the answer (product or quotient) will have only as many significant figures as the measurement with the least number of significant figures. d. When performing an operation, a number that is a count/exact number or a definition is ignored when determining the number of significant figures in the answer. 32.789 miles * 1.61 kilometer mile The definition 1.61km/mile although it is used in making the calculation, is not used in determining the number of significant figures i.e., the answer (52.790 km) has five significant figures.

41. Standards A standard is a reference ; it can be a measuring device or an object or substance used for comparison. The National Bureau of Standards maintains standard weights and measures for the country. Copies of standard devices are made and used throughout the nation/world; these copies can be good or bad. The accuracy of a measuring device (and any measurements made with it) is its agreement with a standard measuring device. If the measuring device is a good copy of the standard, the measurements made with it will be accurate. If the measuring device is a poor copy of the standard, measurements made with it will be inaccurate. An error in accuracy is called a “built in” or systematic error . Prior to making measurements, inaccuracies in instruments should be corrected; this process is called standardization or calibration .

42. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler. Submit {5C22544A-7EE6-4342-B048-85BDC9FD1C3A} Ruler Calibration on stick Reading in the units on the stick Conversion to Meters Standard mm 2 dm 3 Cm 4 mm

43. Error submit Which ruler(s) agree(s) with the standard ruler? Which ruler(s) give(s) inaccurate measure? Which ruler(s) has/have built in error?

44. More about Error When making measurements, error is always a factor. Error can arise from many sources such as inaccurate measuring devices (systematic errors), human error e.g., misreading a device, massing a cold substance (masses of cold objects tend to be inflated), massing a hot substance (masses of hot objects tend to be deflated), leaving the balance windows open (wind currents change the masses), using contaminated materials, etc. Several methods exist for quantifying or indicating how much error is in a measurement.

45. Above, on one edge, there is a simulation of a one-foot ruler calibrated in English units of inches. The other edge is a metric ruler. Use them to answer the questions below. No textbooks allowed! Explain how you get your answers . submit How many millimeters (mm) are in an inch (in or “)? How many centimeters (cm) are in an inch (in or “)? How many inches (in or “) are in a decimeters(dm)? How many millimeters (mm) are in a foot (ft or ‘)? How many centimeters (cm) are in a foot (ft or ‘)? How many decimeters(dm) are in a foot (ft or ‘)?

46. Other Types of measurements Length is a type of measurement; it is a 1-dimensional assessment of how long an object is. Some common English units of length: inch, foot, yard, mile. The basic metric unit of length is the meter. the length of the average adult human arm is approximately one meter. Useful length Conversion factors: 12 inches = 1 foot, 3 feet = 1 yard, 5,280 feet = 1 mile, 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1.61 km = 1 mile, 39.370 inches = 1 m, 1 m = 1.0936 yards. Perimeter : a measurement of the distance around an object. Circumference: a measurement of the perimeter of a circle = 2 π r Area : 2 dimensional (the amount of two-dimensional space the surface of an object occupies), units = length 2 . General geometric formula for area: L*W*geometric shape factor. Some useful area formulas: square: s 2 rectangle L*W circle π r 2 triangle 1/2bh

47. Post Lab Questions submit Be sure to show all calculations. List any sources of error in your measurements. How many pennies (using the average diameter used in lab) would you need to form a line of pennies between the College and the US Air Arena, a distance of 1.4 miles?

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displace a volume of the liquid that is equal

to its volume–that is the liquid level will rise

by the volume of the penny.

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Calculate the number

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with no pennies

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What is the smallest Graduation/calibration mark on Ruler A? housernr Grace Aloba 397 2005-09-01T14:56:58Z 2021-05-26T19:11:05Z

11625 3222 Microsoft Office PowerPoint On-screen Show (4:3) 368 47 18 0 0 false Fonts Used 2 Theme 1 Embedded OLE Servers 1 Slide Titles 47 Arial Calibri Default Design ChemSketch 1. MEASUREMENTS, CONVERSIONS, AND MANIPULATIONS PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentation 4. Some Practical Measurements PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentation 8. What does it mean to make/take a measurement 9. What is the difference between qualifying and quantifying/quantitating matter or energy? 10. What are the two parts of a measurement? 11. What is a unit? What information does a unit give us? 13. In your own words define the term(s) “calibration marks/graduations”. 14. Perhaps you have a meter stick at home. If not, spend some time Googling to become familiar with what a meter is. Below are a series of units that are fractions of a meter and appear on the meter stick. You will notice that the sizes are indicated by means of a prefix in front of the base unit (meter). Complete the following table using these units. submit 15. Contemplation question: 16. Count the number of worms in the picture below? 17. How to properly record a measurement: 18. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler submit 19. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler After reading the following comments determine whether or not you made your measurements correctly. If not, make the appropriate corrections to your technique. 20. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler Submit 21. Details of measurements 22. Determine the diameters in mm of the pennies shown below. Convert them to centimeters, decimeters, and meters. submit 23. Determine diameters in mm of the pennies shown below. Convert them to centimeters, decimeters, and meters. submit 24. Using the data you collected above, calculate the average diameter, the average radius, and the average thickness (height) of a penny. Show your work. submit 25. Using the geometric formula for the volume of a cylinder (πr2h), the average radius, and the average thickness (height), calculate the volume of a penny. submit 26. Reading volume 27. How many decimal places? submit 28. How many pennies? submit 29. How many pennies? submit 30. How many pennies?submit PowerPoint Presentation 32. Substances A, B, C, D, and E have the characteristics listed in the table below. The possible identities of A, B,C, D, and E are Zinc iron, aluminum, copper, and cork, densities (g/cm3 which is the same as g//mL): 7.140, 7.86, 2.71, 8.96, and 0.24, respectively. Using the data given outline a method for identifying these substances, then identify them. submit 33. Identify the following rocks/minerals according to their densities: periodite (3.4g/cm3), pumice (0.641g/cm3), pyrite (5.02g/cm3), shale (2.45g/cm3), slate (2.74g/cm3). Enter your data and results on the next slide 34. Identify the following rocks/minerals according to their densities: periodite (3.4g/cm3), pumice (0.641g/cm3), pyrite (5.02g/cm3), shale (2.45g/cm3), slate (2.74g/cm3). Extract your data from the information given on the previous slide; enter it and your results (show all calculations) in the table below. submit 35. Some Important terms 36. 37. Match each mixture of the compound in the left column with water, to the correct test tube (1,2,or 3) from the previous slide 38. Certain vs Uncertain portions of measurements 39. How to treat zeros in measurements 40. Performing operations with measurements: 41. Standards 42. Measure each worm using the nearest ruler. Submit 43. Error submit 44. More about Error PowerPoint Presentation 46. Other Types of measurements 47. Post Lab Questions submit Prince George’s Community College false false false 16.0000